How to calculate water pressure loss with plumbing tubes

Calculating the loss of water pressure moving through plumbing pipes is significantly less involved then calculating more pressure loss. Plumbing systems work similarly enough that you can make assumptions about how they operate. Plumbing pipes carry liquid water through a smooth pipe in less than two meters per second. Since almost all plumbing pipes obey these simple rules, you do not have to deal with issues like unusual fluid properties, strange fluid or how rough the pipe is.

Instructions

  1. Divide the density of the water by the dynamic viscosity of the water. Viscosity is the amount of resistance that a fluid has to be deformed. You need to know the temperature of the water in the pipeline to determine the dynamic viscosity. Once the temperature, you can see the viscosity in a table of water viscosity. Make sure you use dynamic viscosity, not kinematic viscosity. The density of water can be estimated 1000 kg per cubic meter. Regardless of the temperature, liquid water in a plumbing pipe will always be about this density.
  2. Multiply the density and viscosity dividend by the velocity of the water through the pipe and the internal diameter of the pipe to obtain the Reynolds number of the pipe. The Reynolds number is a value that is used in the pressure loss equations. The internal diameter of the pipe is not necessarily equal to the extent that the pipe is sold low. The internal diameter should be measured or refer to the specifications of internal diameter pipe. Make sure you use consistent units. For example, if the water goes 1 meter per second in a 10 mm tube, it should multiply 1 meter per second by 0.01 meter tube, conversion of 10 mm in meters.
  3. Look at a graph by comparing the Reynolds number against the friction factor. Locate the calculated Reynolds number on the horizontal axis of the graph. Trace that point vertically to the table line. The point of the line passing over Reynolds is used to determine the friction factor. Read the value on the vertical axis to obtain the pipe friction factor.
  4. Divide the length of the pipe by the internal diameter of the pipe.
  5. Multiply the value of the previous step by the friction factor.
  6. Multiply the value of the previous step by the density of the water.
  7. Multiply squared the value of the previous step by the speed of the water. The square speed of water is obtained by multiplying the speed of the water with itself.
  8. Divide the value of the previous step by two. The given number is the loss of pressure. If you use metric units, the pressure loss is in Newton’s per square meter.

Tips & Warnings

  • You need to use the same type of units through the equation. You cannot mix actual Engineering (feet, pounds, gallons, pound’s strength) and metrics (meters, kilograms, liters, Newton) or the equation will give the wrong number. It does not matter which system you use, but it must be consistent. Metric units are generally going to be easier since most charts and tables tend to be metric out charts made specifically for industries predominantly using real engineering units.

How to calculate installation units by plumbing code

Installing pipes in a remodel or a new home requires some math skills, welding ability, some knee pads, and a little knowledge of the plumbing code. Most pipe systems consist of what is known as DWV, which is drainage, water and ventilation. In order to configure the system, you must decide what kind of accessories you want to install. Each accessory has a unit value assigned for supply and for drainage.

Instruction

  1. Take note of all the plumbing fixtures you wish to install on the left side of a notebook page. Make two vertical columns to the right of your accessories. Titles the first column Water Supply Units (WSFU) and the second column Drainage Accessories Vertical Units (DFU).
  2. Open the Uniform Code of Plumbing (UPC) and go to the chapter entitled “Water Supply and Distribution”. If you do not have a UPC volume, search the Internet and you will usually find the information you need for free. If the Internet option is also a problem, go to your local building department and ask for a copy of the WSFU and DFU book lists.
  3. Using the WSFU table, look for the type of accessory you are going to install and note the associated value. Enter the number that most closely resembles the type of sanitary installation you are installing. If there are two values ​​and you are not sure which one to choose, it is generally recommended to select the higher number. After completing the WSFU table, repeat the process in the second vertical column for the DFU.
  4. Add the values ​​of both columns and now you have your source and the totals of accessory of the drainage unit. Use these values ​​to now determine the pipe diameter and the length you will need to buy. Use the calculation drain fitting to determine the size of your ventilation system with the information provided in the chapter “Vents” (Ventilation) of UPC.

Tips On Hiring A Professional Plumbing Company

While you may be able to find a plethora of plumbing services in Puerto Rico by just opening the Yellow Pages, the telephone directory is not the best source of information to use if you are looking for a reliable and responsible Plumber. Most “ghost” plumbing companies use traditional methods, such as the classified listing of newspaper sections and telephone books to find customers. This is because they cannot find customers through referrals.

Since you are going to invite someone to the privacy of your home to work on your sewer lines, leaking faucets and hot water tank, you need to make sure that the person is trustworthy and dependable. The following are valuable tips on how to hire a plumbing contractor:

Requesting recommendations from colleagues and friends:

Your first task should be to ask for recommendations from any of your colleagues in the workplace or friends. Most people have in the last Plumbing services used. Therefore, the odds are that some of your friends have hired a local Plumber to help them with problems such as leaking faucets and hot water tank replacement. Asking for recommendations will make your search easier because word – of – mouth referrals are primarily based on personal experiences.

Regular installation of sink and toilet plumbing in bathrooms

The water that enters the water is coming out, “say the plumbers when asked for an explanation of the basic methods of plumbing. Actually, it’s not that simple. If you are planning to install a bathroom toilet, you need a basic knowledge of plumbing or common techniques could end up with low water pressure, slow draining sink and a toilet gurgles and belches that. In addition to planning your water supply, you should consider venting drainage systems, both in the sink and in the toilet. In many communities, a plumber who is licensed to install all the system.

Water supply

If possible, you locate the sink and toilet along the same wall will reduce plumbing problems, since you only need to install pipes inside a single wall. This also applies when installing a bathtub or shower, but put the three fixtures on the same wall is not always feasible.

If you live in cold weather, avoid installing the water supply pipes on an exterior wall to reduce the risk of freezing.

Water compression distribution units use PEX tubing for individual water supply in each apparatus. The standard size of the tubing is 1/2 inch for the toilet and 3/8 inch for the sink. Red and blue tubes identify hot and cold water.

Drainage system

The drainage system operates by gravity. Individual sink and toilet drains are attached to a larger main drain flowing downward until it leaves the house through the main sewer drain.

Always consult local regulations before installing any type of plumbing. The standard slope for main drains is 1/8 to 1/4 inch (0.32 to 0.64 cm) per foot (30.5 cm) in length. That means the main drain pipe must have a steady downward slope. With less slope the solid waste from the toilet cannot flow efficiently. With too much slope the liquid content of the toilet can flow faster than the solid waste, leaving them in the drainage pipe.

Plumbing for the sink

The sink requires hot and cold water and a drain. The water supply pipe is connected to the bottom of the faucets and the drain with a U-shaped siphon is installed under the sink, which always has a little water to prevent the return of gases from the sewer to through the drain.

Toilet

The water supply pipe is connected to the toilet tank to feed water into the tank after each use. Unlike the sink, the toilet contains its own drainage trap, so there is no need to install another. A 3 or 4 inch (7.6 or 10.2 cm) drain is installed under the toilet and a wax ring between the toilet and the drain to prevent leakage.

Vent

There should be a vent for the sink and toilet. Where the sink drain enters the wall, a hydraulic Tee is installed that directs the water drain downward, while venting the drain upward. The drainage configuration depends on the location of the sink in relation to the toilet and the rest of the accessories.

The toilet drain must also have a hydraulic vent tee. The two vent pipes are joined together in a main vent pipe throughout the house. This main vent pipe is directed up a wall and finally comes out through the roof.

Local regulations

The plumbing is subject to local regulations. Not only must the correct slope be observed in all drainage pipes; there may also be minimum distance requirements between the sink, toilet and other accessories. Most communities require obtaining a permit before installing any type of plumbing at home. Consult a professional plumber before installing any pipe.

Plumber’s putty or Teflon tape

While a single plumbing project might require both plumber putty and Teflon tape, you cannot substitute one for another. Teflon tape provides a reliable seal in the joints of threaded pipe for liquids and gases that may be under considerable pressure. The plumber’s putty acts as a flexible sealant in situations where resistance is needed water, but cannot withstand any significant pressure.

Teflon tape

Teflon tape, also known as PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), is a thin film that functions as a sealant in threaded pipe joints. Different types and densities of PTFE tape are coded by colored for various uses. The white ribbon found in any hardware store or shop DIY is suitable for water supply pipes up to 3/8 inch (0.95 cm) in diameter. The yellow tape, which is twice as dense as white, is for use on gas lines. The red ribbon is for use on larger pipes 1/2 to 2 inches (1.3 to 5cm). There is also green ribbon for oxygen and medical gas lines, and copper, which acts as a lubricant rather than as a sealant.

Use Teflon tape

Start at the end of the pipe with the male thread and wrap the ribbon around the thread in a clockwise direction, overlapping the previous half-turn until it reaches the end of the thread. The thin film will easily adapt to the contours of the threads. Screw the other side of the joint down to get a full seal and pressure resistant.

Plumber putty

The different brands of plumber putty have different ingredients. But all of them are repellent to the water, and all remain soft and flexible for a long time. This makes them ideal for applications where a waterproof reversible seal is required, but only when the seal will not be under pressure (because if the putty remains soft it will wash or leak). Typical domestic plumbing applications for putty are as a sealant between the base of a faucet and the surface of a sink, and between the trailing edge of a basket and a sink.

Use Plumbing Putty

In the event of a leak, put a generous layer of mastic around the bottom edge of the leak and then place it in the drain hole in the sink. Squeeze the drain underneath according to the instructions, and then wipe off excess putty with a damp cloth. For a faucet, use a thick cord of caulk around the faucet base prior to positioning it in the sink. Squeeze the faucet and wipe off excess caulk.

Alternatives

You should never have to choose between Teflon tape and plumber putty, because they do not do the same job. However, there are alternatives for each. Some plumbers prefer to use a liquid compound for pipes (also called “pipe lacquer”) instead of tape. And in some cases, such as in granite, where plumber’s putty is undesirable because it can cause stains, and silicone putty is a better choice.

How to Repair a Shower Faucet

If the water tap of the shower goes from cold to hot, there is a problem with scald guard. Turning the handle in one direction increases the water temperature and vice versa. If the handle is misaligned, the scalding guard inside the faucet will also misalign. This means rapid changes in temperature due to too cold or hot water coming out. One way to counteract this problem is to adjust the blanking guard of the handle. This will level the water temperature and avoid the problem of sudden hot water changes to cold water.

Instructions

  1. Remove the handle from the faucet by unscrewing the small round set screw on the base of the faucet. Insert an Allen wrench into the screw head and turn it counterclockwise to unscrew it. Pull the handle back to remove it from the faucet.
  2. Find the scalding guard of the handle under it. It is a plastic guard that limits the rotation of the same, while limiting the amount of hot water coming out of the faucet. In some, this guard is easily found because it has a dial. In other faucets, it is a small plastic lid.
  3. Turn the guard to limit or increase the amount of hot water coming out of the faucet. If the guard is damaged, turn off the house water supply. Unscrew the cover nut and remove the cartridge. Replace it with a new cartridge and adjust the blanking guard.
  4. Test the faucet when you open the water supply again. Adjust the scalding guard as necessary until the water temperature matches your needs.