How to connect plumbing tubes

Unless your house is very old plumbing pipes are copper or plastic. Plumbing used galvanized steel pipes in homes early twentieth century but gradually changed to copper because it is more sanitary and less prone to corrosion. Early galvanized pipes were still part of open-air pipes in 2010. Early 21st century drain lines are made of ABS or PVC plastic but the main stack leading to the sewer is cast iron. Each of these types of plumbing pipes has a different method of connection.

Galvanized steel pipes

  • Screw galvanized steel pipes together. Place plumbing tape clockwise around the threaded end of a tube, insert into a connection, and turn it clockwise by hand until it does not light up. Finish tightening with a pair of pipe wrenches. Keep the connection with one wrench while turning the tube with the other.
  • Introduce a joint in a galvanizing line anywhere you may need to separate pipes in the future. It has two halves, connected by a central nut.
  • Separate the halves and screw the tubes. Connect the tubes and connect the union by tightening the nut with a socket wrench. You can separate the tubes whenever you have to loosen and remove this nut.

Copper tubes

  • Clean the end of a copper tube that should be attached to a wire brush to remove the oxidized metal. This is preparation for soldering, or sweating, pipes. Spread the flow at the end of the pipe and inside the connection you want to connect with the brush that comes with the flow.
  • Insert smokes the pipe into the fit and joint with a propane torch until the heat flow.
  • Remove the heat and the final touch of a lead coil from the solder joint. It will melt and wick into the tube with the fusion fixture.

Plastic tubes

  • Select the type of pipe cement to bond ABS and PVC plastic pipes. Each type of tube has a specialized glue but you can purchase a variety of multiple uses running on either.
  • You can spread the glue on the outside of the pipe and the inside of the connection using the applicator that comes in the glue.
  • Join the tube with the fitting immediately. The glue forms an airtight seal in less than a minute.

Copper compression accessories

  • Unscrew the connecting nut and remove the brass ring in preparation for joining copper pipes for copper water lines with compressions fittings. You will find that the fittings are usually already installed in the tubes.
  • Place the nut along the pipe with the thread facing you, then slide the ring on the end of the pipe.
  • Fit the threaded end of the tube onto the tube, then slide the nut and screw into the thread. Tighten with a wrench.

Tips & Warnings

  • Bolt stack of waste cast iron pipes together. They are constructed with flanges with preformed holes for this purpose.
  • Join copper for PVC pipes with threaded adapters. An adapter for copper welding tube, then screw in the appropriate PVC adapter. Glue the plastic tube to the PVC adapter.
  • Connect copper to galvanized steel pipes with a Dielectric Union. It has a washing machine and insulation to keep the pipes from touching and corrosion with each other.
  • Plastic p-trap shower sink assemblies have compression fittings that can be tightened by hand.

How to connect a rough shower drain to plumbing

In newly built home, the shower is tucked into the plumbing pipes with a shower drain and waste pipes. Although you cannot see them while you take a shower, the shower drain and waste pipes fill the essential role of carrying wastewater out of the house and into the septic or sewage system waste. Without these components, odors accumulate in the home and water could damage the walls and ceilings. Although there are several types of PVC shower drain soldering solvent shower drains and drain pipes are fairly easy for DIY owners to install themselves.


  1. Pop the showerhead with a flat head screwdriver; there is usually a small slot in the shower head that can fit a screwdriver.
  2. Apply silicone sealant around the lower lip of the body drain shower.
  3. Push the shower body drain into the shower drain pan hole to form an airtight seal.
  4. Place the shower drain rubber gasket and then the paperboard gasket in the body drain shower.
  5. Install the locking nut in the body drain shower and tighten the nut with a wrench.
  6. Look for thick horizontal drain waste pipes near the shower drain. Hold a PVC fork mount to the side of the horizontal pipe and mark the ends of the star shaft on the pipe. A PVC winder is a plumbing fixture that branches out to form a “Y” shape and has three shafts that connect to plumbing pipes.
  7. Cut the pipe waste section with the two marks as a guide. Cut with a PVC hand saw or jigsaw.
  8. Apply PVC primer to the ends of the waste pipes and into the wye cubes. Follow with a PVC or rubber cement application on the purple PVC primer.
  9. Push the wye on both ends of the waste pipe. You will need to install the star at one end of the pipe at a time and pull the pipe until you get the other end of the fork to fit.
  10. Inspect the fork with a torpedo level to make sure it is rated down so that water is not trapped in the pipeline.
  11. Measure the PVC hook-up pipe connection to the center of the shower drain, including all folding of fittings.
  12. Cut a length of 2-inch PVC pipe to the size of the star in the center of the shower drain.
  13. PVC J-hook Drive plumber support hangers on beams every 4 feet to help hold pipes. J hooks already have nails and all you need to do is install them with a hammer.
  14. Cut a length of 2-inch PVC pipe to accommodate a measurement from the PVC shower drain shaft to the center of the 2-inch piping waste pipe. Prime and glue one end of the tubing and the inside of the shower drain bucket and then attach the tubing to the shower drain hub.
  15. Dry to mount a 2-inch PVC all-P-glue trap to the shower drain pipe and rotate so the street 90 degrees of elbow and drain waste 2-inch pipe line.
  16. Cut the drain pipe with the PVC saw where the elbow of the street 90 degree elbow with the waste pipe. Apply a primer to the exposed end of the shower drain, drain pipe, piping, end of the non-hub 90th Street elbow accessory and the U curve inside. A regular 90-degree elbow has two hubs that Are connected to tubes; A 90-degree elbow street has one shaft end with pipe and another end which is the same diameter as the pipe, which can be connected to the hub of another connection.
  17. Apply PVC glue to the 2-inch drain pipe waste and the interior of 90 Elbow Street, connect the pieces and then level 90 elbow.
  18. Apply glue inside the U curve, the outside of 90th Street and at the end of the shower and drain the tubing. Push the elbow up on 90th Street and the drain pipe shower. Seal with PVC cement to drain a leak-proof showerhead every solvent and waste pipe.

How to clean a drain with a plumbing tool

Not every obstruction drain stubbornly requires the assistance of a professional plumber. There are few tools that every homeowner should have at hand in case of a clogged drain or toilet. The necessary tool depends on the type of drainage and the severity of the obstruction. In most cases, drains can be removed quickly, although it may take some strength at its end. If you are unable to uncover the drains using these tools, then it may be time to call the professionals.


  1. Use a plunger as a first attempt to clean a clogged drain. The plunger not only works with toilets and sink drains and whirlpool. Create a seal around the drain with the plunge and push down the handle. It may take several tries to force clear drainage. If the drain does not clear or the obstruction is lower, you may need a different tool.
  2. Use a plumber’s snake for deeper clogs. A snake plumber is a steel hand spiral wire that is “snaked” down the drank by crank to dislodge the source from the obstruction. Crank up a little cable, aim the auger down the crank and continue to crank out the cable until you can go no further. Twist the cable and return the snake coil back through the drain along with the obstruction. For sinks, you will have to go through the cleaning trap under the sink, and not directly through the sink drain.
  3. Use a drill cabinet for deep soaking clogs. Auger cabinet is similar to the snake plumber hand, except that the steel coil is encased in a 2- to 3-foot pipe, with a curved end that fits into the toilet drain. Be inclined to make your way right through the toilet drain. Once the head is aligned in the drain, rotate the cable out again and into the drain. Keep starting until the obstruction is resolved. If the obstruction is pushed through, you should wash the drain. If it is unable to push through, return to the coil cable and it should be brought back with the snake.

How to choose the best plumber

Think about the last time you bought a car. You may not have consulted the yellow pages, nor selected a dealer at random, or bought your car in the first place you visited. However, many times, this is the scenario that describes the way a plumber is searched, people read the phone book and call the plumber who has posted the largest or first listing on the list. However, just like buying a car, searching for a qualified plumber should be figured out and compared to ensure that you get the best price backed by a competent and quality service.

How to identify a plumber

The first thing you should do to find a good plumber is to ask family or friends for advice about professionals they have hired. Other good sources of reference are contractors, real estate agents and the local plumbing store. City government may even recommend a list of plumbers who are familiar with the codes in your area.

There are two different types of plumbers, those who make repairs and those who specialize in new construction and remodeling. “Plumbers who do repairs should be called when a sink is clogged, there are leaks in faucets or emergency situations,” warns Gage. “The second type of plumber works on larger projects, such as replacing a faulty pipe throughout the house or installing additional pipes.”

When requesting references, be sure to ask what type of work the plumber was hired for. Also, find out if the plumber specializes in residential or commercial work.

There are several qualifications that can differentiate a professional plumber from the rest.

Certification or state license – In many states license or state certification to work in that state is needed. Call to verify that the license is up to date and find out if there are any complaints against that license.

Insurance – Make sure the plumber who plan to hire are insured, have compensation insurance against accidents and liability insurance. The plumber you choose must provide you with a copy of your insurance policy.

Better Business Bureau – Contact the local Better Business Bureau to find out if complaints have been filed against your potential candidate.

Questions to ask

When you have narrowed down the list, have two or three plumbers come to your home to evaluate the work and to give you a written budget that includes a list of materials. The contract should explain in detail the magnitude of the project, the items that are not included and the mode of payment. When you get the budget, one question you should not forget to ask is the type of materials that will be used. Remember, a faulty piece can cause damage to your home or turn your basement into a pool. I searched:

Quality materials

Do not allow the plumber to install products made from cheap materials of inferior quality. Ask your plumber to install quality materials, from recognized brands that offer manufacturer’s warranty to the consumer. You may have to pay more, but then you will be happy to have done so if there is a problem or if any of the parts should be replaced.

Reliability and proven performance

Many homeowners who request the services of a plumber to replace a leaking copper pipe are unaware that alternative materials exist on the market. Why make the plumber make a repair with the same material that has already failed? Ask plumbers you plan to hire if you use any of the proven copper alternatives.

These pipes and connections, of durable chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, offer more benefits than a copper pipe. To begin with, it never corrodes, itches or accumulates tartar, which helps to eliminate the risk of future failures and a costly new installation of the pipes. Compared with metallic systems, Flow Guard Gold CPVC systems also virtually eliminate condensation, reducing the risk of costly damage to walls, structures and contents. From the health point of view, the CPVC alternative offers the added benefit of maintaining water quality, since there is no metal that leaks into tap water.

In addition to consulting for the quality of the materials, you can ask the following questions to the plumber you plan to hire:

Business / Referral experience: Ask each plumber how long he has been engaged in the activity and if not personally recommended, ask him to name several people who can attest to the quality of his work and if he completed the job in the time established within the presented budget.

Permits: Check with the professional plumber if you will be responsible for obtaining all necessary permits.

Service guarantees: Does the plumber offer a job guarantee? This is an important point if there are problems that need fixing after the initial installation.

Safety commitment: Accidents can happen in almost all housing improvement projects. Therefore, ask your prospective candidate what steps will be taken to avoid injury or damage to property. A common problem when installing copper pipes is when the welding torch comes too close to the dry wall or to wooden beams in tight spaces. Non-metallic alternatives, such as CPVC pipes, are solvent-cemented (not welded), thus eliminating the risk of fire.

Cleaning: Ask the plumber how he will leave the work area once his work is finished. You will not want to clean for hours after the plumber has left home. Also ask about disorders during the project. For example, if the plumber uses CPVC pipes, you should not worry about picking up metal / copper chips or oil spills on your carpets or floors.


Compare prices, but remember that the cheapest quote they offer does not necessarily mean the best job. It is possible that a skilled and experienced plumber charges more for the job, but ultimately, it can save you money if you do a good job with the best materials.

How to choose a plumber

The best time to choose a plumber is before you have a plumbing emergency. Unfortunately, most people facing an emergency have very little time to research a plumber. When the toilet flushes a leak or the roof of the damp basement of a broken pipe on the top floor, finding help is imperative.


  1. Call a well-known homeowner whose opinion you trust. Most homeowners at one time or another need to hire a plumber and can advise you on one with a good reputation.
  2. Try calling a builder or contractor, if you know one. Contractors often try plumbing and generally have well-formed opinions about various local plumbers, the quality of their work and the competitiveness of their prices.
  3. Talk to the real estate agent who represented you when you bought your home. Real estate experts often recommend plumbers and other subcontractors to their clients. Because most agents want to keep you as a repeat customer, they will be happy to recommend a plumber to you.
  4. Avoid leaving your name and phone number on a plumber’s answering machine unless you are calling after hours. Also, be wary of a child answering the phone. Although reputable plumbers can work outside their home in small communities and rural areas most plumbers who have been in business for a while answer their own phones or have a receptionist.
  5. Request a Plumber’s license number before hanging up. If you feel nervous about it, tell him that you are going to convert the claim into his owner’s insurance agent and that is a requirement.
  6. Ask for a price before work begins. Most reputable plumbers will give you an offer, or at least a budget with a ceiling price. The exception is when the plumbing problem occurs inside a closed wall or ceiling. In that case, the plumber may be reluctant to quote a firm offer until he sees the magnitude of the problem. In this situation, they ask for a “worst case” price.
  7. Consider the plumber’s warranty service before hiring you. If he cannot guarantee work for an acceptable period, he must send up a red flag. If you do not have very old fittings and pipes and your house needs extensive plumbing work, a good plumber will come back to fix a leak or a problem that was your mistake.

Tips & Warnings

  • Take the time to find a plumber before an emergency occurs, if possible.

How to choose a great plumber

It is very popular to believe that there is no such thing as a “good” plumber who cares about customer service. While it is true that there are plumbers out there who are really only in it for the money, there are also some who are really concerned about the quality of their work and pleasing their customers. The challenge is to find these plumbers.


  1. Take into account previous experiences with plumbers. Remember if they were courteous or discourteous, discreet or unpleasant. They should be concerned about the work they have done and should take care of customer service. A good plumber should be careful as at home like him in his own, or better still, his mother. When you are looking for a plumber, ask if workers wear plastic booties over their work shoes when they enter someone’s home. If the answer is no, you should raise a red flag in your mind.
  2. Make sure the plumber double-checks your work. Also ask a warranty on it. If the answer is no to any of those things, be careful. No matter how desperate the situation seems to be, it is not necessary to spend a fortune for poor service and poor work. In at least one good plumbing service should give a discount on the so-called future pipes.
  3. Make sure the plumbing service offers you a tour through your home plumbing system to give you an idea as to why problems have come up and how to prevent them in the future. This type of service is offered by plumbers who do not want tons of repeat business. They want customers, right, but they want to do the right job the first time. It also helps to make plumbing service hours. The really extraordinary ones are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and 365 days a year.
  4. Check if the plumber arrives when she says will and gets the job done over time. A plumber who spends hours in a job, accomplishes nothing and expects you to pay, then goes for two weeks before returning to finish the job, is not going to cut. If they call a plumbing service and say they will send someone right on ask them how much it is going to be, where the plumber is driving from and how much it will cost you just to visit the House alone.
  5. Know that a good plumber will tell you exactly what he is going to do and how he is going to do it. He will give you a bill estimate before he performs the service and inform you every step of the way of what is happening to your pipes. He will clean up after himself, and once finished, he will make absolutely sure that the system works now as it should before never leaves his house. In addition, he will leave your card with you so you can contact him.

Tips & Warnings

  • When you talk on the phone to the company and it is questions, listen carefully to the response of the person. If there seems to be an antagonistic tone, a red flag should go up and warn you of that particular company.
  • Do not attempt to do your own plumbing work unless you know what you are doing. A small problem can easily become a great one so a professional does the work for you.

How to check plumbing pressure

When installing plumbing in a new construction or during a remodeling, local building codes may require an inspector to perform a pressure control. To avoid having to pay high fees or fail inspection, you can check the pressure of your pipe prior to the visit of the inspector. Even if your pipe is not to be checked, you can check the pressure to verify the quality of your facility, and identify and solve any problems before it is serious.


  1. Prepare the system. It is preferable that you check the supply of water and drainage system (drainage, waste and vent) when all the pipes are installed, but before they are covered or inaccessible. The pipes must be dry and the main valve closed.
  2. Blocks the drainage system. For a pressure measurement, you will need a system without air leaks. It locks the ventilation pipes and empties the T-joints close to the main pipe. Seal all openings, such as drains and water intakes. You can do this using sticky plugs or inflatable connection plugs.
  3. Connect the pressure pump and the meter. Following the manufacturer’s instructions, connect the pressure pump and meter to an appropriate part of your drain system, such as a washer.
  4. Pressure the plumbing system. Operate the air pump until the meter registers five pounds (2.27 kg) per square inch (PSI).
  5. Monitor the pressure. Check pressure gauge constantly for at least 15 minutes. If the pressure is kept constant at five psi, your drainage system is safe and has passed the test. However if the test fails surely you must have a loss somewhere.
  6. Check for leaks. Even if the pressure stays constant during the test, you can inspect your drainage system for signs of small leaks, such as a soft hiss or an air leak. If the pressure fails during the test, or if you suspect for any other reason that there is a leak, you can also check the joints by applying a small amount of soap with water and watching for air bubbles.
  7. Repair the losses. Once you have identified the source of a leak, you can solve the problem by reinstalling or replacing the loose, defective or damaged parts of the pipes. Then you can perform the pressure test again to verify that the problem has occurred or find out what repair should be performed.
  8. Test the water supply lines. Generally, you can perform a pressure test on the supply lines simply by opening the water outlet and controlling the entire extension of the system to detect any leakage that the water pressure reveals. However, if you prefer an air pressure test, you can follow the same steps as with the drainage system.

Tips & Warnings

  • You can buy the necessary equipment and tools in a hardware store or plumbing store, you can also rent the equipment for less cost in a rental business.
  • Check local building codes, or call a licensed inspector to find out if a pressure test is needed, and find out about any specific requirements, such as pressure and time testing.
  • When performing an air pressure test, wear safety goggles and other protective equipment. Be extremely careful, especially when checking seals and seals. High pressure could cause the joints to come off at high speed, or create other potential hazards.

How to check a plumber for a license number

When plumbing problems arise, a licensed professional should be the first person to call. Even if a plumber says they are licensed, you can always check to make sure your pipes are being worked on by a trained individual.


  1. Contact the Division of Professional License Tables (or the Department of Business and Professional Regulation) for your state, either by telephone or online.
  2. Enter a plumber’s license number on the licensing website, in addition to information pertaining to the license you are looking for (i.e., the county the plumber works in or the license category you are looking for).
  3. Let the operator know plumber’s name and license number, if the office is called directly, so he can look for any of these options.
  4. Let the plumber start working once checked.

Tips & Warnings

  • It is good to hire a plumber to do the job right the first time. Poor plumbing jobs can cause very serious problems, according to Bloomington / Normal plumbing-heating-refrigeration contractors, including explosions and contamination of water and fire supplies from inadequate facilities.

How to calculate water pressure loss with plumbing tubes

Calculating the loss of water pressure moving through plumbing pipes is significantly less involved then calculating more pressure loss. Plumbing systems work similarly enough that you can make assumptions about how they operate. Plumbing pipes carry liquid water through a smooth pipe in less than two meters per second. Since almost all plumbing pipes obey these simple rules, you do not have to deal with issues like unusual fluid properties, strange fluid or how rough the pipe is.


  1. Divide the density of the water by the dynamic viscosity of the water. Viscosity is the amount of resistance that a fluid has to be deformed. You need to know the temperature of the water in the pipeline to determine the dynamic viscosity. Once the temperature, you can see the viscosity in a table of water viscosity. Make sure you use dynamic viscosity, not kinematic viscosity. The density of water can be estimated 1000 kg per cubic meter. Regardless of the temperature, liquid water in a plumbing pipe will always be about this density.
  2. Multiply the density and viscosity dividend by the velocity of the water through the pipe and the internal diameter of the pipe to obtain the Reynolds number of the pipe. The Reynolds number is a value that is used in the pressure loss equations. The internal diameter of the pipe is not necessarily equal to the extent that the pipe is sold low. The internal diameter should be measured or refer to the specifications of internal diameter pipe. Make sure you use consistent units. For example, if the water goes 1 meter per second in a 10 mm tube, it should multiply 1 meter per second by 0.01 meter tube, conversion of 10 mm in meters.
  3. Look at a graph by comparing the Reynolds number against the friction factor. Locate the calculated Reynolds number on the horizontal axis of the graph. Trace that point vertically to the table line. The point of the line passing over Reynolds is used to determine the friction factor. Read the value on the vertical axis to obtain the pipe friction factor.
  4. Divide the length of the pipe by the internal diameter of the pipe.
  5. Multiply the value of the previous step by the friction factor.
  6. Multiply the value of the previous step by the density of the water.
  7. Multiply squared the value of the previous step by the speed of the water. The square speed of water is obtained by multiplying the speed of the water with itself.
  8. Divide the value of the previous step by two. The given number is the loss of pressure. If you use metric units, the pressure loss is in Newton’s per square meter.

Tips & Warnings

  • You need to use the same type of units through the equation. You cannot mix actual Engineering (feet, pounds, gallons, pound’s strength) and metrics (meters, kilograms, liters, Newton) or the equation will give the wrong number. It does not matter which system you use, but it must be consistent. Metric units are generally going to be easier since most charts and tables tend to be metric out charts made specifically for industries predominantly using real engineering units.

How to calculate installation units by plumbing code

Installing pipes in a remodel or a new home requires some math skills, welding ability, some knee pads, and a little knowledge of the plumbing code. Most pipe systems consist of what is known as DWV, which is drainage, water and ventilation. In order to configure the system, you must decide what kind of accessories you want to install. Each accessory has a unit value assigned for supply and for drainage.


  1. Take note of all the plumbing fixtures you wish to install on the left side of a notebook page. Make two vertical columns to the right of your accessories. Titles the first column Water Supply Units (WSFU) and the second column Drainage Accessories Vertical Units (DFU).
  2. Open the Uniform Code of Plumbing (UPC) and go to the chapter entitled “Water Supply and Distribution”. If you do not have a UPC volume, search the Internet and you will usually find the information you need for free. If the Internet option is also a problem, go to your local building department and ask for a copy of the WSFU and DFU book lists.
  3. Using the WSFU table, look for the type of accessory you are going to install and note the associated value. Enter the number that most closely resembles the type of sanitary installation you are installing. If there are two values ​​and you are not sure which one to choose, it is generally recommended to select the higher number. After completing the WSFU table, repeat the process in the second vertical column for the DFU.
  4. Add the values ​​of both columns and now you have your source and the totals of accessory of the drainage unit. Use these values ​​to now determine the pipe diameter and the length you will need to buy. Use the calculation drain fitting to determine the size of your ventilation system with the information provided in the chapter “Vents” (Ventilation) of UPC.