How to choose a plumber

The best time to choose a plumber is before you have a plumbing emergency. Unfortunately, most people facing an emergency have very little time to research a plumber. When the toilet flushes a leak or the roof of the damp basement of a broken pipe on the top floor, finding help is imperative.


  1. Call a well-known homeowner whose opinion you trust. Most homeowners at one time or another need to hire a plumber and can advise you on one with a good reputation.
  2. Try calling a builder or contractor, if you know one. Contractors often try plumbing and generally have well-formed opinions about various local plumbers, the quality of their work and the competitiveness of their prices.
  3. Talk to the real estate agent who represented you when you bought your home. Real estate experts often recommend plumbers and other subcontractors to their clients. Because most agents want to keep you as a repeat customer, they will be happy to recommend a plumber to you.
  4. Avoid leaving your name and phone number on a plumber’s answering machine unless you are calling after hours. Also, be wary of a child answering the phone. Although reputable plumbers can work outside their home in small communities and rural areas most plumbers who have been in business for a while answer their own phones or have a receptionist.
  5. Request a Plumber’s license number before hanging up. If you feel nervous about it, tell him that you are going to convert the claim into his owner’s insurance agent and that is a requirement.
  6. Ask for a price before work begins. Most reputable plumbers will give you an offer, or at least a budget with a ceiling price. The exception is when the plumbing problem occurs inside a closed wall or ceiling. In that case, the plumber may be reluctant to quote a firm offer until he sees the magnitude of the problem. In this situation, they ask for a “worst case” price.
  7. Consider the plumber’s warranty service before hiring you. If he cannot guarantee work for an acceptable period, he must send up a red flag. If you do not have very old fittings and pipes and your house needs extensive plumbing work, a good plumber will come back to fix a leak or a problem that was your mistake.

Tips & Warnings

  • Take the time to find a plumber before an emergency occurs, if possible.

How to choose a great plumber

It is very popular to believe that there is no such thing as a “good” plumber who cares about customer service. While it is true that there are plumbers out there who are really only in it for the money, there are also some who are really concerned about the quality of their work and pleasing their customers. The challenge is to find these plumbers.


  1. Take into account previous experiences with plumbers. Remember if they were courteous or discourteous, discreet or unpleasant. They should be concerned about the work they have done and should take care of customer service. A good plumber should be careful as at home like him in his own, or better still, his mother. When you are looking for a plumber, ask if workers wear plastic booties over their work shoes when they enter someone’s home. If the answer is no, you should raise a red flag in your mind.
  2. Make sure the plumber double-checks your work. Also ask a warranty on it. If the answer is no to any of those things, be careful. No matter how desperate the situation seems to be, it is not necessary to spend a fortune for poor service and poor work. In at least one good plumbing service should give a discount on the so-called future pipes.
  3. Make sure the plumbing service offers you a tour through your home plumbing system to give you an idea as to why problems have come up and how to prevent them in the future. This type of service is offered by plumbers who do not want tons of repeat business. They want customers, right, but they want to do the right job the first time. It also helps to make plumbing service hours. The really extraordinary ones are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and 365 days a year.
  4. Check if the plumber arrives when she says will and gets the job done over time. A plumber who spends hours in a job, accomplishes nothing and expects you to pay, then goes for two weeks before returning to finish the job, is not going to cut. If they call a plumbing service and say they will send someone right on ask them how much it is going to be, where the plumber is driving from and how much it will cost you just to visit the House alone.
  5. Know that a good plumber will tell you exactly what he is going to do and how he is going to do it. He will give you a bill estimate before he performs the service and inform you every step of the way of what is happening to your pipes. He will clean up after himself, and once finished, he will make absolutely sure that the system works now as it should before never leaves his house. In addition, he will leave your card with you so you can contact him.

Tips & Warnings

  • When you talk on the phone to the company and it is questions, listen carefully to the response of the person. If there seems to be an antagonistic tone, a red flag should go up and warn you of that particular company.
  • Do not attempt to do your own plumbing work unless you know what you are doing. A small problem can easily become a great one so a professional does the work for you.

How to check plumbing pressure

When installing plumbing in a new construction or during a remodeling, local building codes may require an inspector to perform a pressure control. To avoid having to pay high fees or fail inspection, you can check the pressure of your pipe prior to the visit of the inspector. Even if your pipe is not to be checked, you can check the pressure to verify the quality of your facility, and identify and solve any problems before it is serious.


  1. Prepare the system. It is preferable that you check the supply of water and drainage system (drainage, waste and vent) when all the pipes are installed, but before they are covered or inaccessible. The pipes must be dry and the main valve closed.
  2. Blocks the drainage system. For a pressure measurement, you will need a system without air leaks. It locks the ventilation pipes and empties the T-joints close to the main pipe. Seal all openings, such as drains and water intakes. You can do this using sticky plugs or inflatable connection plugs.
  3. Connect the pressure pump and the meter. Following the manufacturer’s instructions, connect the pressure pump and meter to an appropriate part of your drain system, such as a washer.
  4. Pressure the plumbing system. Operate the air pump until the meter registers five pounds (2.27 kg) per square inch (PSI).
  5. Monitor the pressure. Check pressure gauge constantly for at least 15 minutes. If the pressure is kept constant at five psi, your drainage system is safe and has passed the test. However if the test fails surely you must have a loss somewhere.
  6. Check for leaks. Even if the pressure stays constant during the test, you can inspect your drainage system for signs of small leaks, such as a soft hiss or an air leak. If the pressure fails during the test, or if you suspect for any other reason that there is a leak, you can also check the joints by applying a small amount of soap with water and watching for air bubbles.
  7. Repair the losses. Once you have identified the source of a leak, you can solve the problem by reinstalling or replacing the loose, defective or damaged parts of the pipes. Then you can perform the pressure test again to verify that the problem has occurred or find out what repair should be performed.
  8. Test the water supply lines. Generally, you can perform a pressure test on the supply lines simply by opening the water outlet and controlling the entire extension of the system to detect any leakage that the water pressure reveals. However, if you prefer an air pressure test, you can follow the same steps as with the drainage system.

Tips & Warnings

  • You can buy the necessary equipment and tools in a hardware store or plumbing store, you can also rent the equipment for less cost in a rental business.
  • Check local building codes, or call a licensed inspector to find out if a pressure test is needed, and find out about any specific requirements, such as pressure and time testing.
  • When performing an air pressure test, wear safety goggles and other protective equipment. Be extremely careful, especially when checking seals and seals. High pressure could cause the joints to come off at high speed, or create other potential hazards.

How to check a plumber for a license number

When plumbing problems arise, a licensed professional should be the first person to call. Even if a plumber says they are licensed, you can always check to make sure your pipes are being worked on by a trained individual.


  1. Contact the Division of Professional License Tables (or the Department of Business and Professional Regulation) for your state, either by telephone or online.
  2. Enter a plumber’s license number on the licensing website, in addition to information pertaining to the license you are looking for (i.e., the county the plumber works in or the license category you are looking for).
  3. Let the operator know plumber’s name and license number, if the office is called directly, so he can look for any of these options.
  4. Let the plumber start working once checked.

Tips & Warnings

  • It is good to hire a plumber to do the job right the first time. Poor plumbing jobs can cause very serious problems, according to Bloomington / Normal plumbing-heating-refrigeration contractors, including explosions and contamination of water and fire supplies from inadequate facilities.

How to calculate water pressure loss with plumbing tubes

Calculating the loss of water pressure moving through plumbing pipes is significantly less involved then calculating more pressure loss. Plumbing systems work similarly enough that you can make assumptions about how they operate. Plumbing pipes carry liquid water through a smooth pipe in less than two meters per second. Since almost all plumbing pipes obey these simple rules, you do not have to deal with issues like unusual fluid properties, strange fluid or how rough the pipe is.


  1. Divide the density of the water by the dynamic viscosity of the water. Viscosity is the amount of resistance that a fluid has to be deformed. You need to know the temperature of the water in the pipeline to determine the dynamic viscosity. Once the temperature, you can see the viscosity in a table of water viscosity. Make sure you use dynamic viscosity, not kinematic viscosity. The density of water can be estimated 1000 kg per cubic meter. Regardless of the temperature, liquid water in a plumbing pipe will always be about this density.
  2. Multiply the density and viscosity dividend by the velocity of the water through the pipe and the internal diameter of the pipe to obtain the Reynolds number of the pipe. The Reynolds number is a value that is used in the pressure loss equations. The internal diameter of the pipe is not necessarily equal to the extent that the pipe is sold low. The internal diameter should be measured or refer to the specifications of internal diameter pipe. Make sure you use consistent units. For example, if the water goes 1 meter per second in a 10 mm tube, it should multiply 1 meter per second by 0.01 meter tube, conversion of 10 mm in meters.
  3. Look at a graph by comparing the Reynolds number against the friction factor. Locate the calculated Reynolds number on the horizontal axis of the graph. Trace that point vertically to the table line. The point of the line passing over Reynolds is used to determine the friction factor. Read the value on the vertical axis to obtain the pipe friction factor.
  4. Divide the length of the pipe by the internal diameter of the pipe.
  5. Multiply the value of the previous step by the friction factor.
  6. Multiply the value of the previous step by the density of the water.
  7. Multiply squared the value of the previous step by the speed of the water. The square speed of water is obtained by multiplying the speed of the water with itself.
  8. Divide the value of the previous step by two. The given number is the loss of pressure. If you use metric units, the pressure loss is in Newton’s per square meter.

Tips & Warnings

  • You need to use the same type of units through the equation. You cannot mix actual Engineering (feet, pounds, gallons, pound’s strength) and metrics (meters, kilograms, liters, Newton) or the equation will give the wrong number. It does not matter which system you use, but it must be consistent. Metric units are generally going to be easier since most charts and tables tend to be metric out charts made specifically for industries predominantly using real engineering units.

How to calculate installation units by plumbing code

Installing pipes in a remodel or a new home requires some math skills, welding ability, some knee pads, and a little knowledge of the plumbing code. Most pipe systems consist of what is known as DWV, which is drainage, water and ventilation. In order to configure the system, you must decide what kind of accessories you want to install. Each accessory has a unit value assigned for supply and for drainage.


  1. Take note of all the plumbing fixtures you wish to install on the left side of a notebook page. Make two vertical columns to the right of your accessories. Titles the first column Water Supply Units (WSFU) and the second column Drainage Accessories Vertical Units (DFU).
  2. Open the Uniform Code of Plumbing (UPC) and go to the chapter entitled “Water Supply and Distribution”. If you do not have a UPC volume, search the Internet and you will usually find the information you need for free. If the Internet option is also a problem, go to your local building department and ask for a copy of the WSFU and DFU book lists.
  3. Using the WSFU table, look for the type of accessory you are going to install and note the associated value. Enter the number that most closely resembles the type of sanitary installation you are installing. If there are two values ​​and you are not sure which one to choose, it is generally recommended to select the higher number. After completing the WSFU table, repeat the process in the second vertical column for the DFU.
  4. Add the values ​​of both columns and now you have your source and the totals of accessory of the drainage unit. Use these values ​​to now determine the pipe diameter and the length you will need to buy. Use the calculation drain fitting to determine the size of your ventilation system with the information provided in the chapter “Vents” (Ventilation) of UPC.

Tips On Hiring A Professional Plumbing Company

While you may be able to find a plethora of plumbing services in Puerto Rico by just opening the Yellow Pages, the telephone directory is not the best source of information to use if you are looking for a reliable and responsible Plumber. Most “ghost” plumbing companies use traditional methods, such as the classified listing of newspaper sections and telephone books to find customers. This is because they cannot find customers through referrals.

Since you are going to invite someone to the privacy of your home to work on your sewer lines, leaking faucets and hot water tank, you need to make sure that the person is trustworthy and dependable. The following are valuable tips on how to hire a plumbing contractor:

Requesting recommendations from colleagues and friends:

Your first task should be to ask for recommendations from any of your colleagues in the workplace or friends. Most people have in the last Plumbing services used. Therefore, the odds are that some of your friends have hired a local Plumber to help them with problems such as leaking faucets and hot water tank replacement. Asking for recommendations will make your search easier because word – of – mouth referrals are primarily based on personal experiences.

Regular installation of sink and toilet plumbing in bathrooms

The water that enters the water is coming out, “say the plumbers when asked for an explanation of the basic methods of plumbing. Actually, it’s not that simple. If you are planning to install a bathroom toilet, you need a basic knowledge of plumbing or common techniques could end up with low water pressure, slow draining sink and a toilet gurgles and belches that. In addition to planning your water supply, you should consider venting drainage systems, both in the sink and in the toilet. In many communities, a plumber who is licensed to install all the system.

Water supply

If possible, you locate the sink and toilet along the same wall will reduce plumbing problems, since you only need to install pipes inside a single wall. This also applies when installing a bathtub or shower, but put the three fixtures on the same wall is not always feasible.

If you live in cold weather, avoid installing the water supply pipes on an exterior wall to reduce the risk of freezing.

Water compression distribution units use PEX tubing for individual water supply in each apparatus. The standard size of the tubing is 1/2 inch for the toilet and 3/8 inch for the sink. Red and blue tubes identify hot and cold water.

Drainage system

The drainage system operates by gravity. Individual sink and toilet drains are attached to a larger main drain flowing downward until it leaves the house through the main sewer drain.

Always consult local regulations before installing any type of plumbing. The standard slope for main drains is 1/8 to 1/4 inch (0.32 to 0.64 cm) per foot (30.5 cm) in length. That means the main drain pipe must have a steady downward slope. With less slope the solid waste from the toilet cannot flow efficiently. With too much slope the liquid content of the toilet can flow faster than the solid waste, leaving them in the drainage pipe.

Plumbing for the sink

The sink requires hot and cold water and a drain. The water supply pipe is connected to the bottom of the faucets and the drain with a U-shaped siphon is installed under the sink, which always has a little water to prevent the return of gases from the sewer to through the drain.


The water supply pipe is connected to the toilet tank to feed water into the tank after each use. Unlike the sink, the toilet contains its own drainage trap, so there is no need to install another. A 3 or 4 inch (7.6 or 10.2 cm) drain is installed under the toilet and a wax ring between the toilet and the drain to prevent leakage.


There should be a vent for the sink and toilet. Where the sink drain enters the wall, a hydraulic Tee is installed that directs the water drain downward, while venting the drain upward. The drainage configuration depends on the location of the sink in relation to the toilet and the rest of the accessories.

The toilet drain must also have a hydraulic vent tee. The two vent pipes are joined together in a main vent pipe throughout the house. This main vent pipe is directed up a wall and finally comes out through the roof.

Local regulations

The plumbing is subject to local regulations. Not only must the correct slope be observed in all drainage pipes; there may also be minimum distance requirements between the sink, toilet and other accessories. Most communities require obtaining a permit before installing any type of plumbing at home. Consult a professional plumber before installing any pipe.

Plumber’s putty or Teflon tape

While a single plumbing project might require both plumber putty and Teflon tape, you cannot substitute one for another. Teflon tape provides a reliable seal in the joints of threaded pipe for liquids and gases that may be under considerable pressure. The plumber’s putty acts as a flexible sealant in situations where resistance is needed water, but cannot withstand any significant pressure.

Teflon tape

Teflon tape, also known as PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), is a thin film that functions as a sealant in threaded pipe joints. Different types and densities of PTFE tape are coded by colored for various uses. The white ribbon found in any hardware store or shop DIY is suitable for water supply pipes up to 3/8 inch (0.95 cm) in diameter. The yellow tape, which is twice as dense as white, is for use on gas lines. The red ribbon is for use on larger pipes 1/2 to 2 inches (1.3 to 5cm). There is also green ribbon for oxygen and medical gas lines, and copper, which acts as a lubricant rather than as a sealant.

Use Teflon tape

Start at the end of the pipe with the male thread and wrap the ribbon around the thread in a clockwise direction, overlapping the previous half-turn until it reaches the end of the thread. The thin film will easily adapt to the contours of the threads. Screw the other side of the joint down to get a full seal and pressure resistant.

Plumber putty

The different brands of plumber putty have different ingredients. But all of them are repellent to the water, and all remain soft and flexible for a long time. This makes them ideal for applications where a waterproof reversible seal is required, but only when the seal will not be under pressure (because if the putty remains soft it will wash or leak). Typical domestic plumbing applications for putty are as a sealant between the base of a faucet and the surface of a sink, and between the trailing edge of a basket and a sink.

Use Plumbing Putty

In the event of a leak, put a generous layer of mastic around the bottom edge of the leak and then place it in the drain hole in the sink. Squeeze the drain underneath according to the instructions, and then wipe off excess putty with a damp cloth. For a faucet, use a thick cord of caulk around the faucet base prior to positioning it in the sink. Squeeze the faucet and wipe off excess caulk.


You should never have to choose between Teflon tape and plumber putty, because they do not do the same job. However, there are alternatives for each. Some plumbers prefer to use a liquid compound for pipes (also called “pipe lacquer”) instead of tape. And in some cases, such as in granite, where plumber’s putty is undesirable because it can cause stains, and silicone putty is a better choice.

How to Repair a Shower Faucet

If the water tap of the shower goes from cold to hot, there is a problem with scald guard. Turning the handle in one direction increases the water temperature and vice versa. If the handle is misaligned, the scalding guard inside the faucet will also misalign. This means rapid changes in temperature due to too cold or hot water coming out. One way to counteract this problem is to adjust the blanking guard of the handle. This will level the water temperature and avoid the problem of sudden hot water changes to cold water.


  1. Remove the handle from the faucet by unscrewing the small round set screw on the base of the faucet. Insert an Allen wrench into the screw head and turn it counterclockwise to unscrew it. Pull the handle back to remove it from the faucet.
  2. Find the scalding guard of the handle under it. It is a plastic guard that limits the rotation of the same, while limiting the amount of hot water coming out of the faucet. In some, this guard is easily found because it has a dial. In other faucets, it is a small plastic lid.
  3. Turn the guard to limit or increase the amount of hot water coming out of the faucet. If the guard is damaged, turn off the house water supply. Unscrew the cover nut and remove the cartridge. Replace it with a new cartridge and adjust the blanking guard.
  4. Test the faucet when you open the water supply again. Adjust the scalding guard as necessary until the water temperature matches your needs.